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### First Order Bernoulli Equations

#### Additional Examples

Solve the following initial value problem
$$
\begin{align}\frac{dy}{dx} - 9y &= 10\exp(x)y^{-4}\\
y(0) &= 1
\end{align}
$$
This is a Bernoulli equation. First we find the general solution following the paradigm.
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©2010, 2014 Andrew G. Bennett

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- We substitute $ y = v^{1/(1-(-4)} = v^{1/5}$, so $ dy/dx = (1/5)v^{-4/5}dv/dx$, and our equation becomes $$ (1/5)v^{-4/5}\frac{dv}{dx} - 9v^{1/5} = 10\exp(x)v^{-4/5} $$
- Multiply by $5v^{4/5}$ to obtain a linear equation in the usual form. $$ \frac{dv}{dx} - 45v = 50\exp(x) $$
- Solve the linear equation.
- Find the integrating factor $$ \mu(x) = \exp\left(\int -45 dx \right) = \exp(-45x) $$
- Multiply through by the integrating factor $$ \exp(-45x)\frac{dv}{dx} - 45\exp(-45x)v = 50\exp(x)\exp(-45x) = 50\exp(-44x) $$
- Recognize the left-hand-side as $\displaystyle \frac{d}{dx}(\mu(x)v).$ $$ \frac{d}{dx}(\exp(-45x)v) =50exp(-44x) $$
- Integrate both sides. $$ \exp(-45x)v = -(25/22)\exp(-44x) + C $$
- Divide through by $\mu(x)$ to solve for $ v.$ $$ v = -(25/22)\exp(x) + C\exp(45x) $$

- Back substitute for $ y.$ $$ y = (-(25/22)\exp(x) + C\exp(45x))^{1/5} $$
- We check, but $ y = 0$ is not a solution to this equation.

If you have any problems with this page, please contact bennett@math.ksu.edu.

©2010, 2014 Andrew G. Bennett